Fork me on GitHub

Starting interactive jobs and submitting batch jobs

All job (both interactive sessions and batch jobs) on the University’s clusters are managed using the Son of Grid Engine job scheduling software. You will typically see this referred to as SGE, as it is one of several derivatives of Sun Grid Engine, or sometimes as just the scheduler.

SGE works ass follows: a user requests that a job (task), either a script or an interactive session, be run on the cluster and then SGE will take jobs from the queue based on a set of rules and priorities.

Interactive sessions

If you wish to use a cluster for interactive work, such as running applications like MATLAB or Ansys, or compiling software, you will need to request interactive session from SGE. The pre-requisites for this (including connecting to the clusters) are described in Using the HPC Systems.

There are three commands for requesting an interactive shell on a cluster worker node:

  • qrsh - No support for graphical applications. Standard SGE command.
  • qsh - Supports graphical applications. Standard SGE command.
  • qrshx - Supports graphical applications. Superior to qsh. Unique to Sheffield’s clusters.

You can configure the resources available to the interactive session by specifying them as command line options to the qrshx, qsh or qrsh commands. For example to run a qrshx session with access to 16 GB of RAM:

[te1st@sharc-login2 ~]$ qrshx -l rmem=16G

or a session with access to 8 cores:

[te1st@sharc-login2 ~]$ qrshx -pe smp 8

A table of Common Interactive Job Options is given below; any of these can be combined together to request more resources.


Long running jobs should use the batch submission system rather than requesting an interactive session for a very long time. Doing this will lead to better cluster performance for all users.

Common Interactive Job Options

Command Description
-l h_rt=hh:mm:ss Specify the total maximum execution time for the job. The upper limit is 08:00:00. NB these limits may differ for specific SGE Projects/Queues.
-l rmem=xxG Specify the maximum amount (xx) of (real) memory to be used (per process or core) in Gigabytes.
-pe <env> <nn> Specify a parallel environment and a number of processor cores.
-pe smp <nn> The smp parallel environment provides multiple threads on one node. <nn> specifies the max number of threads.

Running batch jobs

The power of the clusters really comes from the batch job queue submission process. Using this system, you write a script which requests various resources, initializes the computational environment and then executes your program(s). The scheduler will run your job when resources are available. As the task is running, the terminal output and any errors are captured and saved to disk, so that you can see the output and verify the execution of the task.

Any task that can be executed without any user intervention while it is running can be submitted as a batch job. This excludes jobs that require a Graphical User Interface (GUI), however, many common GUI applications such as Ansys or MATLAB can also be used without their GUIs.

When you submit a batch job, you provide an executable file that will be run by the scheduler. This is normally a bash script file which provides commands and options to the program you are using. Once you have a script file, or other executable file, you can submit it to the queue by running:


Here is an example batch submission script that runs a fictitious program called foo:

# Request 5 gigabytes of real memory (mem)
# and 5 gigabytes of virtual memory (mem)
#$ -l mem=5G -l rmem=5G

# load the module for the program we want to run
module load apps/gcc/foo

# Run the program foo with input foo.dat
# and output foo.res
foo < foo.dat > foo.res

Some things to note:

  • The first line always needs to be #!/bin/bash (to tell the scheduler that this is a bash batch script).
  • Comments start with a #
  • Scheduler options, such as the amount of memory requested, start with #$
  • You will often require one or more module commands in your submission file. These make programs and libraries available to your scripts. Many applications and libraries are available as modules on ShARC and iceberg.

Here is a more complex example that requests more resources:

# Request 16 gigabytes of real memory (RAM)
#$ -l rmem=16G
# Request 4 cores in an OpenMP environment
#$ -pe openmp 4
# Email notifications to
#$ -M
# Email notifications if the job aborts
#$ -m a

# Load the modules required by our program
module load compilers/gcc/5.2
module load apps/gcc/foo

# Set the OPENMP_NUM_THREADS environment variable to 4

# Run the program foo with input foo.dat
# and output foo.res
foo < foo.dat > foo.res

Scheduler Options

Command Description
-l h_rt=hh:mm:ss Specify the total maximum execution time for the job. The upper limit is typically 96:00:00 (4 days) on ShARC and 168:00:00 (7 days) on Iceberg. Note that these limits may differ for specific SGE Projects/Queues. Also note that requesting less execution time may result in your job spending less time queuing.
-l mem=xxG Specify the maximum amount (xx) of memory to be used.
-l arch= Target a processor architecture. This is irrelevant on ShARC as all processors are the same model. Options on Iceberg include intel-e5-2650v2 and intel-x5650.
-N Job name, used to name output files and in the queue list.
-j y[es]|n[o] Join the error and normal output into one file rather than two.
-M Email address to send notifications to.
-m bea Type of notifications to send. Can be any combination of begin (b) end (e) or abort (a) i.e. -m ea for end and abortion messages.
-a Specify the earliest time for a job to start, in the format MMDDhhmm. e.g. -a 01011130 will schedule the job to begin no sooner than 11:30 on 1st January.
-wd working_dir Execute the job from the directory specified (i.e. working_dir).
-l excl=true Request exclusive access to all nodes used by the job so no other jobs can run on them. This can be useful for benchmarking purposes where you want to ensure that you have exclusive use of e.g. memory/IO buses. Note that you still need to request CPU cores and memory to avoid being limited to just the default per job (one core and a set amount of RAM). Also note that the use of this option will likely result in longer queuing times.
-l hostname= Target a node by name. Not recommended for normal use.

Frequently Asked SGE Questions

How many jobs can I submit at any one time

You can submit up to 2000 jobs to the cluster, and the scheduler will allow up to 200 of your jobs to run simultaneously (we occasionally alter this value depending on the load on the cluster).

How do I specify the processor type on Iceberg?

Add the following line to your submission script

#$ -l arch=intel-e5-2650v2

This specifies nodes that have the Ivybridge E5-2650 CPU. All such nodes on Iceberg have 16 cores.

To only target the older, 12 core nodes that contain X5650 CPUs add the following line to your submission script

#$ -l arch=intel-x5650

How do I specify multiple email addresses for job notifications?

Specify each additional email with its own -M option

#$ -M
#$ -M

How do you ensure that a job starts after a specified time?

Add the following line to your submission script

#$ -a time

but replace time with a time in the format MMDDhhmm.

For example, for 22nd July at 14:10, you’d do

#$ -a 07221410

This won’t guarantee that it will run precisely at this time since that depends on available resources. It will, however, ensure that the job runs after this time. If your resource requirements aren’t too heavy, it will be pretty soon after. When I tried it, it started about 10 seconds afterwards but this will vary.